Two kilometers inland from Hawke’s Bay on the North Island of New Zealand, a dark-red gate simply off the freeway marks the doorway to the Tangoio Marae. This marae is the place a neighborhood Māori hapū, or group, holds common gatherings and ceremonies. The placement appears excellent: surrounded by lush inexperienced hills, near town of Napier, and only a stone’s throw from the ocean. However there may be one drawback: the marae is at very excessive danger of flooding. The hapū of Tangoio Marae have a severe choice to make about this place that’s so central to their group, and one in every of their decision-making instruments is unorthodox: a board recreation.
Referred to as Marae-opoly, the Māori group designed the sport in partnership with researchers from New Zealand’s Nationwide Institute of Water and Atmospheric Analysis, or NIWA, with the express objective of serving to the hapū determine methods to handle the flood danger to their marae. Whereas the researchers from NIWA contributed scientific knowledge about recognized flood dangers and projected local weather change results, the hapū introduced their very own experiences and values to the desk throughout recreation growth brainstorming classes.
“Brainstorming is basically necessary,” says Paula Blackett, a social scientist at NIWA who co-designed Marae-opoly. “It permits individuals to precise their ideas on what could possibly be carried out [to address the flood risk], and why. It’s fairly an inclusive strategy since you contemplate all the various things that could possibly be potential.”
A flip in Marae-opoly performs out in a number of steps. First, groups debate methods to handle the flood danger and select to both make the marae extra flood resistant by waterproofing buildings, elevating the flood banks, or enhancing drainage works; transfer its location; or wait and lower your expenses. In every spherical, a random “rainmaker” occasion reflecting the actual odds of utmost climate determines the rainfall for that decade. Typically the staff is hit by a devastating flood, different instances it’s dry, however it’s inconceivable to foretell what’s going to occur when. Turns go on like this till gamers have skilled 100 years of local weather change, with the choices they made early on compounding over time.
As soon as the sport was able to play, a number of dozen of the hapū gathered at their marae to spend a Saturday enjoying. It was a full of life occasion, with groups debating their selections every flip.
“Though it was a secure setting, it truly made individuals notice that no matter choice they made there will probably be penalties,” says Tania Hopmans, chair of the Maungaharuru-Tangitū Belief, which represents the hapū of Tangoio Marae. For instance, investing cash early within the recreation to save lots of for bigger bills may go away them prone to greater prices as a consequence of flood injury, however spending a small quantity may imply inadequate safety in opposition to larger floods.
Video games like Marae-opoly are what researchers seek advice from as severe video games — video games designed for a selected instructional function. NIWA has been using serious games for a few years as a manner for individuals to higher perceive the dangers of local weather change.
“Most individuals wrestle with having the ability to combine all the totally different streams of knowledge that they want as a way to make strong local weather change adaptation selections in an unknown future,” says Blackett. Video games make that type of data extra manageable and let individuals expertise it at a small scale.
Prior to now few years, board video games have been used all over the world to show a variety of matters, from medical abilities to cultural historical past and more. Like Marae-opoly, video games can be utilized to mannequin real-world environmental situations. For instance, Azteca Chess helped Mexican espresso farmers make decisions about pest control.
In response to Rebecca Bayeck, an knowledgeable on the tutorial worth of video games at Utah State College who was not concerned within the Marae-opoly mission, board video games have inherent qualities that make them appropriate studying environments. “Collaboration, mathematical considering, computational considering — all these abilities that you will want within the twenty first century — are literally present in board gaming.”
Even commercially designed video games can be utilized educationally. For instance, Pandemic, a board recreation through which gamers work collectively to cease the worldwide outbreak of a number of infectious illnesses, has been used to teach group decision-making. Not too long ago, the sport received new interest during the COVID-19 pandemic as an off-the-cuff technique to perceive the complexity of what was occurring on the planet.
However why board video games? Not like video video games, Bayeck sees board video games as fostering a welcoming area as a result of they facilitate in-person connections. Taking part in the sport “invitations private interplay the place you may see the face of the opposite [players], see their expression, ask a query,” she says.
The informal setting of enjoying Marae-opoly allowed the hapū to overtly have tough discussions about their choices — to both keep and defend the marae from oncoming floods, or transfer the cultural and religious hub of their group.
By enjoying the sport, Hopmans says, “individuals can have nice arguments on the desk about what to do or what to not do, and the implications got here 5 minutes later.”
Apart from facilitating debates, the sport additionally clarified advanced ideas. “One of many issues that has actually stood out for me is how individuals take into consideration and course of dangers,” says Blackett.
For example, the kind of flood that’s of specific hazard in New Zealand is also known as a 100-year flood, which makes it sound unlikely to occur any time quickly. The fact is that every year has an equal chance of seeing a 100-year flood, and it’s potential to get two 100-year floods again to again. Local weather change can also be making these excessive floods extra seemingly.
Marae-opoly helped the Māori group of Tangoio Marae higher assess the chance to their assembly place and the way their actions affected potential outcomes. It was a low-stakes trial for an necessary choice — and after weighing all of the choices, the group made their choice for actual. “We’re shifting the marae,” says Hopmans.
Via a stroke of luck, a neighborhood farm lately offered them a patch of land simply 300 meters away from the marae’s present website, on barely greater floor. “Over time, we nonetheless may have to maneuver additional,” cautions Hopmans, because the floods could finally meet up with the brand new website. However, she provides, “at this level, we’re undoubtedly shifting up the highway.”
Shifting a website of such cultural and religious significance was a troublesome choice, with actual individuals and actual cash at stake. However enjoying a board recreation made it a bit simpler to course of.